The main goal of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels within the normal range. However, blood sugar levels are really difficult to maintain normal.
Nonetheless, getting closer to the normal range, then the likelihood of long-term complications as well as be on the wane. It is necessary for monitoring blood sugar levels regularly either done independently by means of test blood sugar levels at home or carried out in a laboratory nearby.
Treatment of diabetes involves weight control, exercise and diet. Someone who suffer from obesity and type 2 diabetes would not need medication if they lose weight and exercise regularly.
However, most people find it difficult to lose weight and exercise regularly. Because it is usually given replacement therapy insulin or hypoglycemic drugs (lowering blood sugar) by mouth.
Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin but type 2 can be treated with oral medication. If weight control and exercise are not successful then the physician then delivers a drug that can be taken (oral = oral) or use insulin.
Here is the distribution of pharmacological therapies for diabetes, namely:
Antidiabetic medication (OHO)
Sulfonylurea class often can lower blood sugar levels adequately in people with type II diabetes, but is not effective in diabetes type I. Examples include Glipizide, glyburide, tolbutamide and chlorpropamide. These drugs lower blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of insulin by the pancreas and increase its effectiveness.
Other drugs, namely metformin, does not affect insulin release but increases the body’s response to insulin itself. Akarbos works by delaying absorption of glucose in the intestines.
Per-oral hypoglycemic drugs are usually administered in patients with type II diabetes if diet and exercise fail to lower blood sugar levels adequately.
These drugs can sometimes be given only once (in the morning), although some patients require 2-3 times Award.
If the oral hypoglycemic drugs can not control blood sugar well, it may need to be given insulin injections.
Insulin Replacement Therapy
insulinPada syringe type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can not produce insulin, so insulin must be given a replacement. Insulin treatment can only be carried out by injection, insulin is destroyed in the stomach so it can not be given by mouth (swallowed).
The new form of insulin (nasal spray) is under study. At this time, this new form of insulin that can not operate properly because of different absorption rate cause problems in determining dose and visit diabetes destroyer.
Insulin is injected under the skin into the fat layer, usually in the arm, thigh or abdomen. Used needles are very small so do not feel too much pain.
Insulin contained in three basic forms, each of which has the speed and duration of action are different:
An example is regular insulin, which works the fastest and most briefly.
Insulin is often begin to lower blood glucose within 20 minutes, reached a peak in 2-4 hours and work for 6-8 hours.
Fast-acting insulin is often used by patients who undergo injections several times a day and disutikkan 15-20 minutes before eating.
An example is insulin zinc suspension or suspension isofan insulin.
Start working within 1-3 hours, reaches a maximum peak within 6-10 hours and worked for 18-26 hours.
Insulin can be injected in the morning to meet the needs for a day and can be injected in the evening to meet the needs of the whole night.
An example is insulin zinc suspension has been developed.
The effect only emerged after 6 hours and worked for 28-36 hours.
Insulin dosage is stable at room temperature for months so that it can be taken anywhere.
Selection of insulin to be used depends on:
The desire of patients to control diabetes
The desire of patients to monitor blood sugar levels and adjust the dose
The daily activities of sufferers
The dexterity of patients in the study and understand disease
The stability of blood sugar levels throughout the day and from day to day
The most convenient dosage is once daily injections of insulin being. But these preparations provide blood sugar control most minimal.
Tighter control can be obtained by combining two types of insulin, a fast acting insulin and insulin-workers are. Second injection was given at dinner or when going to bed at night.
The most stringent control is obtained by injecting a quick acting insulin and insulin-workers are in the morning and at night with extra fast acting insulin injections during the day.